[Solved] How to solve error "type 'Null' is not a subtype of type 'String' in type cast"

Question

Asked by TEZZ on December 18, 2021 (source).

I've been trying to debug this error type 'Null' is not a subtype of type 'String' in type cast but could not find the the exact place where the error is being produced besides that it is genereated when trigger a POST API call.

Shop Class

import 'package:freezed_annotation/freezed_annotation.dart';
part 'shop.freezed.dart';
part 'shop.g.dart';

@freezed
class Shop with _$Shop {
  factory Shop({
      String? id,
      @JsonKey(name: 'shopNumber')String? number,
      @JsonKey(name: 'created') String? createdAt,
      @JsonKey(name: 'updated') String? updatedAt,
      int? calendar}) = _Shop;

  factory Shop.fromJson(Map<String, dynamic> json) => _$ShopFromJson(json);

  static Shop fromJsonModel(Map<String, dynamic> json) => Shop.fromJson(json);
}

Post Function - Create shop

Future<void> postShop() async {
    Shop shop;
    
    shop = await shopSvc.create(Shop(calendar: widget.calendar?.id, number: _shopNumber));

        var newCalendar = widget.calendar?.copyWith(shop: shop);
        Navigator.pushReplacement(context, MaterialPageRoute(builder: (context) => ShopInfoScreen(calendar: newCalendar!)));
      }
    } catch (e) {
      print(e);
    }
  }
}

Shop Service File

class ShopService extends BaseHttpService {
  final AppContext appContext;
  late String _shopApi;

  shopService(http.Client client, this.appContext) : super(httpClient: client) {
    _shopApi = '${Globals.ApiEndpoint}/user/${appContext.currentCustomer.id}/shops/';
  }

  Future<Shop> create(Shop shop) async {
    var token = await this.appContext.currentUser!.getIdToken();
    final response = await callApi('$_cardApi/', token, method: 'post', payload: shop.toJson());
    // return Shop.fromJsonModel(json.decode(response));
    return shop;
  }
}

Base Http Service file

class BaseHttpService {
  final Client httpClient;

  BaseHttpService({required this.httpClient});

  @protected
  Future<String> callApi(String url, String token, {String method: 'get', Map<String, dynamic>? payload}) async {
    late Response response;
    Map<String, String> headers = {'Authorization': 'Bearer $token'};


    if (method == 'get') response = await httpClient.get(Uri.parse(url), headers: headers);
    else if (method == 'post') response = await httpClient.post(Uri.parse(url), headers: headers, body: payload);
    else if (method == 'put') response = await httpClient.put(Uri.parse(url), headers: headers, body: payload);
    else if (method == 'delete') response = await httpClient.delete(Uri.parse(url), headers: headers);

    if (response.statusCode >= 300) {
      print('statusCode : ' + response.statusCode.toString());
      print(response.body.toString());
      throw ClientException('Failed to load story with id $url');
    }

    return response.body;
  }
}

Basically all I'm trying to do is create shop which only requires 2 fields in the body, number and calendar and the other fields will be defaulted in the DB.

The code is failing at the end of this line else if (method == 'post') response = await httpClient.post(Uri.parse(url), headers: headers, body: payload); but I do not know where the problem is as I've put ? in the variables already.

The http package is already on the newest version http: ^0.13.4

I'ved tried the below body for the POST call in POSTMAN and it works without a problem:

//Test 1
{
        "id": null,
        "shopNumber": "87678675",
        "created": null,
        "updated": null,
        "calendar": 1
    }

//Test 2
    {
        "shopNumber": "87678675",
        "calendar": 1
    }

Stacktrace:

#0      CastMap.forEach.<anonymous closure> (dart:_internal/cast.dart:288:25)
#1      _LinkedHashMapMixin.forEach (dart:collection-patch/compact_hash.dart:400:8)
#2      CastMap.forEach (dart:_internal/cast.dart:287:13)
#3      mapToQuery (package:http/src/utils.dart:17:7)
#4      Request.bodyFields= (package:http/src/request.dart:137:12)
#5      BaseClient._sendUnstreamed (package:http/src/base_client.dart:87:17)
#6      BaseClient.post (package:http/src/base_client.dart:32:7)
#7      BaseHttpService.callApi (package:shop/services/base-http.dart:18:60)
#8      ShopService.create (package:shop/services/shop_service.dart:20:28)
<asynchronous suspension>
#9      _ShopAddScreenState.postShop (package:shop/shop_add_screen.dart:137:16)
<asynchronous suspension>

Answer

Question answered by TEZZ (source).

Changing the code snippet below in http-0.13.4/lib/src/utils.dart sorted the error: "type 'Null' is not a subtype of type 'String' in type cast". Reference to github issue where I got this code https://github.com/dart-lang/http/issues/75

This removes all the null from the payload, or you can put some other code in there to manage nulls.

FROM:

String mapToQuery(Map<String, String> map, {Encoding encoding}) {
       var pairs = <List<String>>[];
       map.forEach((key, value) =>
           pairs.add([Uri.encodeQueryComponent(key, encoding: encoding),
                      Uri.encodeQueryComponent(value, encoding: encoding)]));
    
       return pairs.map((pair) => "${pair[0]}=${pair[1]}").join("&");
     }

TO:

 String mapToQuery(Map<String, String> map, {Encoding encoding}) {
+  map.keys
+      .where((k) => (map[k] == null)).toList() // -- keys for null elements
+      .forEach(map.remove);
+
   var pairs = <List<String>>[];
   map.forEach((key, value) =>
       pairs.add([Uri.encodeQueryComponent(key, encoding: encoding),
                  Uri.encodeQueryComponent(value, encoding: encoding)]));

   return pairs.map((pair) => "${pair[0]}=${pair[1]}").join("&");
 }
enter code here

I also faced another similar error after resolving this "type 'int' is not a subtype of type 'String' in type cast". I believe it is due to this code in http-0.13.4/lib/src/utils.dart where the http client tries to map everything to string as referenced above.

String mapToQuery(Map<String, String> map, {Encoding encoding})

To avoid all these issues I just changed my function:

FROM:

Future<String> callApi(String url, String token, {String method: 'get', Map<String, dynamic>? payload})

TO:

Future<String> callApi(String url, String token, {String method: 'get', String? payload})

Then instead of using shop.toJson() I replaced it with json.encode(shop)

  Future<Shop> create(Shop shop) async {
    var token = await this.appContext.currentUser!.getIdToken();
    final response = await callApi('$_cardApi/', token, method: 'post', payload: json.encode(shop));
    // return Shop.fromJsonModel(json.decode(response));
    return shop;
  }

By changing the payload to a String rather than Map it triggers a different output as you can see in this peiece of code in http-0.13.4/lib/src/base_client.dart

if (headers != null) request.headers.addAll(headers);
    if (encoding != null) request.encoding = encoding;
    if (body != null) {
      if (body is String) {
        request.body = body;
      } else if (body is List) {
        request.bodyBytes = body.cast<int>();
      } else if (body is Map) {
        request.bodyFields = body.cast<String, String>();
      } else {
        throw ArgumentError('Invalid request body "$body".');
      }

Previously I was triggering body is Map which cast the values to Strings:

else if (body is Map) {
            request.bodyFields = body.cast<String, String>();
          }

This was casting my null and int values to String which is causing the two errors.

Now I am triggering:

if (body is String) {
            request.body = body;
          }

Hope this helps someone who is facing this problem in the future.

DART DART-NULL-SAFETY FLUTTER HTTP
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